Cognitive-Behavior Interventions (CBIs) refer to a number of different but related interventions used to change behavior by teaching individuals to understand and modify thoughts and behaviors. Problem solving, anger control, self-instruction, and self-control are examples of interventions under the umbrella of CBI. Typically, students learn to recognize difficult situations that have produced inappropriate/violent responses, then identify and implement an acceptable response. Students also learn to restrain aggressive behavior using covert speech. Through various teaching and role-playing activities, students will more consistently engage in appropriate behavior when faced with the various situations that have caused problems in the past.

Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions have shown effectiveness across educational environments, disability types, ethnicity, and gender. For example, positive effects were demonstrated in large urban high schools, private schools with enrollments of over 200 children, and residential facilities. They have also demonstrated positive effects on adolescents who have emotional and/or behavioral disorders, learning disabilities, mental retardation, depression, and other problems associated with dropping out. They have been shown effective in studies that involved male and female African American and Caucasian students.